Archives for March 2007
CFP: LED 2007
The 2nd International Conference on Language, Education and Diversity will be held 21-24 November 2007 at the University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.
The LED Conference focuses on the impact of increased cultural linguistic diversity, at both national and supranational levels, and its consequences for the theory, policy and practice of language education. The conference will provide an international forum that brings together the latest academic and policy discussions, and promotes critical debate, on the often complex interconnections between diversity and language education.
Submissions are due by 30 April 2007.
UIC Launches Learning Sciences Research Institute
The Learning Sciences Initiative at the University of Illinois at Chicago took another step forward this week with the formation of the Learning Sciences Research Institute. The institute replaces the Institute for Mathematics and Science Education (IMSE) and now encompasses three initiatives:
- The Initiative in Math and Sciences Education (formerly IMSE)
- The Center for the Study of Learning, Instruction, and Teacher Development (LITD)
- The newly forming Initiative in Informative Education
LSRI’s co-directors are Jim Pellegrino & Susan Goldman. According to the announcement:
This change in title represents a broadening of the scope of the Institute beyond mathematics and science to encompass additional disciplines, such as literacy and social studies. In addition to the research and development efforts already established at IMSE, LSRI will take on a wider scope of work that encompasses the social, cultural, and environmental contexts of teaching and learning across different learners and different disciplines.
Brian Smith is blogging!
Tantek Çelik offers three hypotheses of human interface design and asks for prior art. Here are the three hypotheses.
- Human interface cognitive load is proportional to the number of clicks/keystrokes/gestures
- Human interface cognitive load is proportional to interface latency
- The usability of an interface is inversely geometrically proportional to its cognitive load
These claims relating the interactions of various aspects of an interface to cognitive load and ultimately to usability are not new. This is essentially what GOMS (Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection) analyses do.
GOMS dates back to the early 80s. It is a means to assess human-computer interaction in terms of fundamental steps. Pulling part of the Wikipedia entry for one flavor of GOMS, we see that a GOMS analysis
…eliminates the goals, methods, and selection rules, leaving only primitive operators. Only six operations are provided by the base theory: 1) pressing a key, 2) moving the pointing device to a specific location, 3) pointer drag movements, 4) mental preparation, 5) moving hands to appropriate locations, and 6) waiting for the computer to execute a command. The times for each of the six operations have been empirically determined. The operations for a compete task are arranged into a serial stream, and total task execution time is a simple calculation.
Implicit in GOMS is that more operations increases cognitive load, so I’d argue that Tantek’s first two hypotheses are neatly captured within a larger GOMS framework. One thing I like about Tantek’s second claim is that he’s highlighting latency as a key factor. It’s one of the main drivers behind AJAX, so it’s important enough to pull out on its own.
Tantek’s third point is interesting in that he’s claiming a geometric relationship between cognitive load and usability. (That a relationship exists at all is a fundamental assumption of GOMS.) I’m not sure the shape of the curve matters that much, but the problem I have with a geometric relationship is that it implies that UI efficiencies that reduce moderate amounts of cognitive load aren’t going to yield big changes in usability. I think Twitter is actually a counterexample to his claim. The kinds of interfaces Twitter replaces aren’t things I would place at the high end of the cognitive load spectrum. Yet Twitter’s appeal is in large part due to its stripped down interface.
GOMS doesn’t have near the visibility of Fitt’s Law, so it’s not surprising to see the current generation of designers “rediscovering” it. I think any time designers try to codify design knowledge as hypotheses, laws, design patterns, or design principles, the field wins, so I’m glad to see Tantek raising these ideas.
It’s worth noting that GOMS analyses may be useful, but are certainly not a complete approach to UI analysis and design. (It they were, GOMS would have the visiblity of Fitt’s Law.) GOMS is pretty low level and doesn’t always consider the broader task in which the user is engaged. (Frankly, in grad school we pretty much blew off GOMS analyses precisely because they felt too low level. There’s no point investing in a formal GOMS analysis to a first-stage prototype when the kinds of changes you’re likely considering are wholesale changes based on larger questions like whether the user even understands what to do in the interface.)
Finally, since Tantek mentions Fitt’s Law, let’s throw Hick’s Law into the mix too, since it covers some of the same usability territory.
Hick’s law, or the Hick-Hyman law, is a human-computer interaction model that describes the time it takes for a user to make a decision as a function of the possible choices he or she has.
This is another case where Twitter shines (and Twitterific really shines): it’s not just that Twitter has a simpler interface, but that it really only gives you one choice as to what to do. Where Fitt’s Law is useful for graphic UI design, Hick’s Law really helps at the conceptual design stage.
Making Visualization Collaborative
Researchers at IBM launched a social data analysis site called Many Eyes about a month ago. The idea is to provide some interesting visualization and annotation tools and then let users add data and talk about it. Now that the site has had some time for users to find it, add data, and start talking, two of the researchers discuss what they’ve seen so far. They also point to two other similar ventures, Swivel and Data360.